American Period 1898 - 1940
1898 - 1908
- This was the age of Modern Media characterized by the Introduction of new newspapers in 1898, film in 1904, and radio broadcasting in 1922. Folk Media in the form of zarzuela and the use of talinghaga or symbolism also marked the era.
- The American Soldier and the Soldier's Letter were the first English-language newspapers in the Philippines, published by enlisted men of the 18th Minnesota Volunteers in the U.S. Army during the Philippine-American War of 1898. It advertised the imported products of one "Mayor Brown" the newspaper publication.
(Source: Carmen Nakpil's article, "The first English -language papers in Manila" p. 8, printed in Archipelago, 1978, Volume 5)
- Manila Times founded by an Englishman, Thomas Cowan, came out on October 11, 1898. It closed after 32 years but later reopened with new owners.
- Official Gazette (1898) was established by the U.S. civil government in Manila to counteract the "free-swinging and often licentiuos American newspapers." (Source: Nakpil, above) · The American, the second English language daily was published by Franklyn Brooks, a New York Journalist, on October 15, 1898.
- El Nuevo Dia (The New Day) was published in 1900 by Sergio Osmeña, Rafael Palma and Jaime C. de Veyra
- Manila Bulletin, oldest continuously existing newspaper in the country, started as a shipping journal in 1900. Its owner, publisher and editor was Carson Taylor, an American.
- In 1904, the first movies appeared; two silent movies were about Jose Rizal.
- Philippine Free Press was founded by Judge W.A. Kincaid in 1906. It was to become at the time the most influential English-language weekly in the history of Philippine journalism. (Please link to picture of Philippine Free Press)
- Sakdal, a Tagalog newspaper was founded by Benigno Ramos in 1908; it was probably inspired by Zola's novel, J' Acse (I Accuse) and was an instant hit with the masses. (Please link to picture of Benigno Ramos-but crop to show Ramos only and add caption: Benigno Ramos, founder of Sakdal)
1910 - 1925
- In 1912, Manila Bulletin expanded to include news of general interest and remained as a mouthpiece of the Americans even after 1946 under Taylor. It has since become Bulletin Today owned by Hans Menzi.
- The Manila Carnival became part of the Metropolitan life of the 1900's. "It was an attempt to bridge the gap created by wartime animosity among Spanish, American, and Filipino residents. The carnival helped start the year right..." The climax of the carnival was the coronation of the carnival queen. The ballots, which served as points for winning as Carnival queen were printed in newspapers and in leading magazines, like the Graphic and Philippine Free Press.
- In 1919, the University of the Philippines offered formal degree in journalism/communication courses in country and Asia.
- In 1920, Manuel L. Quezon established the Philippines Herald, the first pro-Filipino nationalistic newspaper with Carlos P. Romulo, as one of its early editors.
- Philippine Publicity Service, the first Advertising agency was founded by the Americans in 1921. This was followed by the Philippine Agency Service Company. Both ad agencies served as clearing houses for advertisements coming from the US.
- 1920s, Origin of Radio Broadcasting in the Philippines
- Most significant of the American era was the birth of Philippine radio in 1922. A 50-watt radio stations in Manila and Pasay was put up by Henry Hermann in June 1922. Americans owned most of the pre-World War II stations, which employed mostly Americans as their announcing staff; language used is English; programming included entertainment and news. Radio became mainly an entertainment medium and was readily accepted by the public. Its profitability was recognized by local businessmen and led them to set up their own stations as channels for advertising their products/services.
- In 1924, KZKZ radio operating at 100-watts replaced the radio stations established earlier by Henry Hermann.
- 1924, letter "K" was assigned to broadcasting stations in the Philippines in accordance with United States laws applicable to the country which was then an American colony.
1926 - 1940
- 1929, KZRC opened in Cebu and introduced radio in the province. It was however closed down since relay signals were unsuccessful between Manila and Cebu. It was reopened a decade and later went fearlessly broadcasting on the side of the guerilla movemen
- KZRC-Cebu, introduced radio in the provinces in 1929.
- Philippine Advertising Bureau, the first Filipino-owned ad agency was founded by Florentino Garriz in 1929.
- Vodavil, the popular pure entertainment stage performance came to life in the early 1930's. It was said to be "escapist, helping people skirt the trauma of U.S. 'manifest destiny' in the Pacific, forget the drudgery of daily living and survive the tremors of American depression.
- 1930, Radio gradually left the experimental stage and was becoming a dependable medium.
- In 1931, Radio Control Law was promulgated paving the way for the creation of the Radio Control Board that lasted until 1972. Before World War II. six leading Manila-based commercial radio stations were put up: KZRM, KZRF, KZIB, KZEG, KZRH.
- Norman Reyes anchored Voice of Freedom. During the fall of Bataan, Norman was known for his stirring broadcasts which demonstrated what radio can do in keeping up the morale of the Filipino people...Gen Wainwright announced the surrender of Corregidor.